Mumbai

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Mumbai (previously known as Bombay until 1996) is a natural harbor on the west coast of India, and is the capital city of Maharashtra state. It is India's largest city, and one of the world's most populous cities. It is the financial capital of India. The city is the second most-populous in the world. It has approximately 13 million people.[1] Along with the neighboring cities of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it forms the world's 4th largest urban agglomeration. They have around 19.1 million people.[2]

The seven islands that form Bombay were home to fishing colonies. The islands were ruled by successive kingdoms and indigenous empires before Portuguese settlers took it. Then, it went to the British East India Company. During the mid-18th century, Bombay became a major trading town. It became a strong place for the Indian independence movement during the early 20th century. When India became independent in 1947, the city was put into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. It was renamed Mumbai in 1996.[3]

Mumbai generates more than 6% of India's GDP.[4] It accounts for 25% of industrial output, 40% of sea trade, and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy.[5] The Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India and many Indian companies and multinational corporations are in the city. It also has the Hindi film and television industry, known as Bollywood.

Etymology[edit]

The name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess (kuladevata) Mumbadevi of the native Koli community—[6] and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, which is the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra.[7][8] The Koli people originated in Kathiawar and Central Gujarat, and according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawar (Gujarat), where she is still worshipped.However, other sources disagree that Mumbai's name was derived from the goddess Mumba.

The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India").[9] This name possibly originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.[10]

Public transport in Mumbai[edit]

The Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport is Mumbai's public transport service.

References[edit]

  1. "World: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population (2009)". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
  2. "Population of urban agglomerations with 750,000 inhabitants or more in 2007 (thousands) 1950-2025 (India)". Department of Economic and Social Affairs (United Nations). Retrieved 9 June 2009.
  3. "Bombay: History of a City". British Library. Retrieved 8 November 2008.
  4. "Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Retrieved 18 July 2008.
  5. "Navi Mumbai International Airport" (JPG). City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). Retrieved 18 July 2008.
  6. https://web.archive.org/web/20150617083828/http://maharashtratimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-6709481,prtpage-1.cms
  7. http://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/nfile/1064
  8. https://archive.org/details/developmentproje00bapa
  9. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=20pdFRekGvMC&pg=PA102&redir_esc=y
  10. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=20pdFRekGvMC&pg=PA103&redir_esc=y

External links[edit]