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Islamic Republic of Pakistan

  • اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان (Urdu)
  • Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]
Flag of Pakistan
State emblem of Pakistan
State emblem
Motto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam
ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu)
"Faith, Unity, Discipline"[2]
Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah
قَومی ترانہ
Land controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; land claimed but not controlled shown in light green
Land controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; land claimed but not controlled shown in light green
33°41′30″N 73°03′00″E / 33.69167°N 73.05000°E / 33.69167; 73.05000
Largest cityKarachi
24°51′36″N 67°00′36″E / 24.86000°N 67.01000°E / 24.86000; 67.01000
Official languagesEnglishUrdu
Recognised regional languagesPunjabi (39%) • Pashto (18%) • Sindhi (15%) • Balochi (3%)
Sub-provincialSaraiki (12%) • ShinaKashmiri (0.17%)
Other languagesHindkoBaltiPahari-PothwariKhowarBurushaskiKohistaniWakhiYidghaDameliKalashaGawar-BatiDomaakiKutchiMemoniBrahui
Ethnic groups
See Religion in Pakistan
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Arif Alvi
Imran Khan
Sadiq Sanjrani
Asad Qaiser
Gulzar Ahmed
National Assembly
from the United Kingdom
• Dominion
14 August 1947
23 March 1956
12 January 1972
14 August 1973
• Total
881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi)[lower-alpha 1][7] (33rd)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
Increase212,228,286[8][9] (5th)
• 2017 census
Increase 207.8 million
• Density
244.4/km2 (633.0/sq mi) (56th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.076 trillion[10] (22nd)
• Per capita
Decrease $5,160[10] (134th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Decrease $287.2 billion[10] (42nd)
• Per capita
Decrease $1,349[10] (151st)
Gini (2015)33.5[11]
HDI (2020)Increase 0.557[12]
medium · 152nd
CurrencyPakistani rupee (₨) (PKR)
Time zoneUTC+05:00 (PST)
DST is not observed
Date format
Driving sideleft[13]
Calling code+92
ISO 3166 codePK
  1. See also Pakistani English.:
  2. ^ The Arabic language is officially recognised by the constitution of Pakistan.[14]

Pakistan,[lower-alpha 3] officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,[lower-alpha 4] is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million. It has the world's second-largest Muslim population. It is the 33rd-largest country by area, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China to the northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent. The ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon's empire, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Kushan Empire, the Gupta Empire,[15] the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Ghaznavids Empire, the Ghurid Sultanate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Sur Empire,[16] the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire (partially) and, most recently, the British Indian Empire.[17][18]

Pakistan gained independence in 1947 as a homeland for Indian Muslims following the Pakistan Movement, which sought statehood for the Muslim-majority regions of British India through partition.[19][20][21] It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.[22] In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah.[23] In 2008, Pakistan transitioned to civilian rule.[24] In 2010, Pakistan adopted a parliamentary system with periodic elections.[25][26]

A middle power,[27][28][29][30][31][32][excessive citations] Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state. It is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world,[33][34] and is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class populations.[35][36] Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability, and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenges including poverty, illiteracy, and corruption.[37][38][39] Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC, the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition, and is a major non-NATO ally.


  1. James Minahan (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-313-34497-8.
  2. "The State Emblem". Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  3. "Pakistan" The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency.
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Article_2
  5. "POPULATION BY RELIGION" (PDF). Pakistan Burau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan: 1.
  6. "Pakistan statistics". Geohive. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  7. "Where is Pakistan?".
  8. ""World Population prospects – Population division"". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  9. ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  11. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  12. "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  13. Miguel Loureiro (28 July 2005). "Driving—the good, the bad and the ugly". Daily Times. Pakistan. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CP/31
  15. Wynbrandt, James (2009). A Brief History of Pakistan. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-6184-6.
  16. Spuler, Bertold (1969). The Muslim World: a Historical Survey. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-02104-3.
  17. Hussain, Rizwan. "Pakistan". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries in its relationship with Islam: it is the only country to have been established in the name of Islam
  18. Talbot, Ian (2 February 1984). "Jinnah and the Making of Pakistan". History Today. As British rule there drew to an end, many Muslims demanded, in the name of Islam, the creation of a separate Pakistan state.
  19. Khan, Nyla Ali (2013). The Fiction of Nationality in an Era of Transnationalism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-92304-4. Prior to the partition of India in 1947 into two separate nation-states, a group of Western-educated Indian Muslims who constituted the Muslim League, the pivotal Muslim political organization in undivided India, ardently advocated the logical of creating a separate homeland for Indian Muslims.
  20. Shehabuddin, Elora (2008). Reshaping the Holy: Democracy, Development, and Muslim Women in Bangladesh. Columbia University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-231-14156-7. Ostensibly a homeland for all Indian Muslims, Pakistan was hewed out of the Muslim-majority regions of British India--Sind, Baluchistan, the Northwst Frontier Province, and West Punjab in the northwest and East Bengal in the east.
  21. Uk Heo (2007). Civil Wars of the World: Major Conflicts Since World War II. ABC-CLIO. pp. 591–. ISBN 978-1-85109-919-1.
  22. "Special report: The Breakup of Pakistan 1969–1971". 23 September 2017.
  23. Iqbal, Khurshid (2009). The Right to Development in International Law: The Case of Pakistan. Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-134-01999-1. The constitution proclaims ... that all existing laws shall be brought in accordance with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such injunctions.
  24. "Opposition confident in Pakistan". BBC NEWS. 18 February 2008.
  25. "Pakistani parties to share power". BBC. 9 March 2008.
  26. "Pakistan to curb president powers". BBC. 8 April 2010.
  27. Buzan, Barry; Wæver, Ole (2003). Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. Cambridge University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-521-89111-0. In the framework of their regional security complex theory (RSCT), Barry Buzan and Ole Waever differentiate between superpowers and great powers which act and influence the global level (or system level) and regional powers whose influence may be large in their regions but have less effect at the global level. This category of regional powers includes Brazil, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Turkey.
  28. Rajagopalan, Rajesh (2011), "Pakistan: regional power, global problem?", in Nadine Godehardt; Dirk Nabers (eds.), Regional Orders and Regional Powers, Routledge, pp. 193–208, ISBN 978-1-136-71891-5
  29. Paul, T. V. (2012). International Relations Theory and Regional Transformation. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-107-02021-4. Retrieved 3 February 2017. The regional powers such as Israel or Pakistan are not simple bystanders of great power politics in their regions; they attempt to asymmetrically influence the major power system often in their own distinct ways.
  30. Barry Buzan (2004). The United States and the great powers: world politics in the twenty-first century. Polity. pp. 71, 99. ISBN 978-0-7456-3374-9. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  31. Hussein Solomon. "South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership". Archived from the original on 24 June 2002. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  32. Vandamme, Dorothee. "Pakistan and Saudi Arabia : Towards Greater Independence in their Afghan Foreign Policy?" (PDF). Université catholique de Louvain. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2016. Countries like Saudi Arabia and Pakistan have enough influence to not be considered small, but not enough to be major powers. Within the limits of their regions, they play a significant political role. Thus instinctively, they would qualify as middle powers. While it is not the objective here to question the characteristics of Jordan's definition of middle powers, we argue that Pakistan is in fact a middle power despite its being nuclear-armed. When looking at the numbers, for instance, it appears that Saudi Arabia and Pakistan can be classified as middle powers (see in this regard Ping, 2007).
  33. Iqbal, Anwar (8 November 2015). "Pakistan an emerging market economy: IMF". Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  34. Kaplan, Seth. "Is Pakistan an emerging market?". Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  35. "Pakistan has 18th largest 'middle class' in the world: report". The Express Tribune. 16 October 2015.
  36. "GDP ranking | Data". Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  37. Mathew Joseph C. (2016). Understanding Pakistan: Emerging Voices from India. Taylor & Francis. p. 337. ISBN 978-1-351-99725-6.
  38. "Poverty in Pakistan: Numerous efforts, many numbers, not enough results".
  39. "70% decline in terrorist attacks in Pakistan – The Express Tribune". 9 September 2015.

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